Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the authors were aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial capital letters or all capital letters.

The authors and publisher have taken care in preparation of this book, but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein.

Images of "O2 Out of Box Experience" (color plate section) courtesy of Sam Chen, Silicon Graphics, Inc., and Construct Internet Design.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Carey, Rikk.
The annotated VRML 2.0 reference manual / Rikk Carey and Gavin Bell.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 0-201-41974-2
1. VRML (Document markup language) I. Bell, Gavin. II. Title.
QA76.76.H94C368 1997
006-dc21                                                                                    97-6495

Copyright © 1997 by Rikk Carey and Gavin Bell

A-W Developers Press is a division of Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Published simultaneously in Canada.

Sponsoring Editor: Mary Treseler (
Project Manager: John Fuller
Production Coordinator: Melissa Lima
Cover image courtesy of Sam Chen
Text design: Octal Publishing, Inc.
Set in 10.5 point Berkeley by Octal Publishing, Inc.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9–MA–0100999897
First printing, April 1997

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Readers are encouraged to contact the authors with questions or comments.
Rikk Carey can be reached via e-mail at
Gavin Bell's e-mail address is

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